The Police Federation was founded in 1919, ninety years after the Police Act 1829 brought the Metropolitan Police into being. In that period, police officers were denied the right to form any kind of association to protect their interests. Until 1890, the police had no statutory right to a pension. The Government and the police authorities did their utmost to ensure that police forces remained immune from the growing trade union movement, which was seen as a major threat to the establishment.
Government appointed Committee of Inquiry under Lord Desborough examined the police service. It announced that the police would be allowed an internal representative body, but the Police Union would never be recognised and police who belonged to it would have to resign their membership. It also recommended that the Home Secretary should become responsible to Parliament for the entire police service. Police Act 1919 established the Police Federation and awarded the entire police service a substantial increase in pay.
Police Union called a strike to oppose the Police
Act and demanded recognition of the Police Union. Strike defeated and all officers who took part in the strike were dismissed.
In 1920, Police Council draws up first Police Regulations, setting out standard conditions of service.
In 1940 The police get their first pay increase since Desborough.
In 1949 The Oaksey Committee's report on police pay and conditions of service and in 1950 Part two of the Oaksey report deals with representative organisations and negotiating machinery. It allows the Federation to raise funds by voluntary contributions from its members. The report says that either the Federation agrees to represent women police, or they should have their own organisation. The report calls for new negotiating machinery, with access to arbitration.
In 1952 The Police Council's proposed constitution for a new negotiating body is published. The Police Council for Great Britain will cover Scotland as well as England and Wales. There will be a Police Arbitration Tribunal, but the Home Secretary will have the right to veto its award.
The Police Act 1964 embodies most of the proposals of the Royal Commission and sets the pattern of police organisation and control for the rest of the century. The Government introduces the first scheme to compensate victims of crime out of public funds. Capital punishment is abolished.
In 1966, In response to Federation criticisms of bad management and lack of modern equipment, Home Secretary establishes an inquiry by the Police Advisory Board (PAB) into manpower, equipment and efficiency. Compulsory force mergers to reduce the number of forces from 126 to 49.
In 1971 The pensions (Increase) Act 1971 gives public service pensioners, including police, a guarantee that their pension will be index-linked to take account of inflation and in 1972 Commutation rights are extended to officers retiring with less than 25 years' service
In 1976 The Federation walks out of the Police Council and demands direct negotiation with the Government. Branch boards hold ballots as to whether the police should have the right to strike. Conference carries a motion with the right to strike. There is huge anger in the Police Service. Due to this, in 1977 The Government concedes to an independent inquiry led by Lord Justice Edmund Davies to examine police pay and whether the police should be allowed to affiliate to the TUC or have the right to strike.
In 1978 Edmund Davies reports on police pay. The Government accepts the report. He rejects affiliation to the TUC and the right to strike. The Police Council is replaced by the Police Negotiation Board (PNB).
In 1993 The Sheehy Report into police responsibilities and rewards is published and substantial parts are rejected. Housing allowance to be abolished for new entrants, and will no longer be uprated for serving officers.
In 1998 The Federation proposes radical changes to police training through "Project Forward." The PNB reaches agreement on conditions governing part-time working and job sharing.
In 2011 Winsor Part One Review of Police Officers' and Staff Pay and Conditions announced (8/3/11). Lord Hutton's Independent Public Service Pensions Commission Final Report (10/3/). Riots in England. This was followed in 2012 by Winsor Part Two Review of Police Officers' and Staff Pay and Conditions announced (15/3/12). Police and Crime Commissioners (PCC's) and College of Policing (CoP) introduced.
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